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Titanium 3D Printing and its Role in Consumer Electronics

by unionfab
Titanium 3D printing in Consumer Electronics

Titanium 3D printing is revolutionizing the landscape of consumer electronics by integrating materials such as titanium alloys renowned for their optimal strength and lightweight characteristics.


What is 3D Printing?

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a revolutionary digital fabrication method. Using 3D printing, three-dimensional solid objects can be created from a digital file by building up successive layers of material.

Compared to traditional manufacturing, 3D printing offers several compelling advantages. Rather than removing material through conventional subtractive techniques like cutting or machining, 3D printing works additively by placing layer upon layer in precise patterns. This allows for highly complex geometries and topologies to be produced with minimal waste.


The Promise of Metal 3D Printing in Electronics

Once limited to prototyping due to high costs and low production rates, metal 3D printing is increasingly becoming viable for mass manufacturing. Key factors driving this include:

Cost competitiveness

For titanium alloy parts in electronics, 3D printing production costs now undercut traditional CNC machining. This opens new opportunities to leverage its design advantages.


Mature technologies

Laser-based powder bed fusion techniques like selective laser melting (SLM) and laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) have proven reliable for aerospace applications and beyond. Continued improvements are making them even more capable.


Lower materials prices

The cost of common 3D printing metals like titanium and platinum powders has dropped tremendously in just a few years. This is a game changer for affordability.


Growing Market

As consumer devices adopt more metal components and complex shapes, 3D printing is ideally suited to help suppliers keep pace through design optimization, customization and efficient production changeovers. The electronics industry presents a massive opportunity for further deployment.

The limitation of mass production in the past has been overcome, especially with the current trend of consumer electronics incorporating foldable screens and titanium alloys, unlocking market space for 3D printing.

Forward-thinking electronics brands like Apple and Huawei are embracing the technology to optimize new metal-based products using techniques like selective laser melting. The stage is set for wider 3D printing adoption.


Leading Applications from Apple and Honor

Major electronics brands are pioneering new uses of metal 3D printing:

Apple Watch adopts metal 3D printing. Image Source: Apple.

Apple Watch leads the way
Bloomberg reported the Apple Watch Series 9 case uses binder jetting of stainless steel. Select key components like the digital crown and buttons on the Ultra model are fabricated via laser powder bed fusion of titanium alloys. Success with these applications may see further 3D printing integration across Apple’s portfolio.

Honor Debuts Foldable Hinge
The hinge mechanism for Honor’s premium Magic V2 foldable smartphone, unveiled in July 2023, utilizes 3D printed titanium alloys. This represented one of the first large-scale usecases for additive manufacturing in consumer electronics.

Early Adopters Inspire Others
Apple and Honor validating additive manufacturing opens the door for others to confidently explore its merits. Devices like the latest Xiaomi 14 Pro and rumored Samsung Galaxy S24 Ultra (2024.3) confirm adoption of lightweight, durable titanium alloy parts. This points to rising demand for metals in consumer electronics.


Cost Reduction in Titanium Alloy 3D Printing

Titanium alloys present unique manufacturing challenges versus other metals. Traditional CNC subtractive methods struggle with titanium’s low thermal conductivity, which causes excessive tool wear from heat buildup during cutting.

In contrast, 3D metal printing is an additive process that avoids subtractive techniques entirely. Laser sintering selectively fuses powdered feedstock, minimizing thermally-induced damage.

Additionally, the continually falling prices of production enablers like lasers and metal powders have greatly improved the economics of 3D printing titanium alloys specifically. Material and equipment costs are now on par or even below conventional CNC machining in many applications.


Established Metal 3D Printing Technology


Classes of Metal 3D Printing

Metal additive manufacturing involves several primary approaches:

Classification of metal additive manufacturing technologies.
Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Classification-of-metal-additive-manufacturing-technologies_fig1_332886203

Powder Bed Fusion (PBF)
This dominant method fuses powder layers with an energy source like lasers (SLM) or electrons (EBM). PBF techniques such as selective laser melting (SLM) have proven exceptionally capable for intricate parts.

Binder Jetting (BJT)
BJT works by depositing a liquid binding agent to join powder particles layer-by-layer. It enables highly productive printing of metals and ceramics.

Directed Energy Deposition (DED)
DED builds parts by focusing thermal energy like lasers to fuse materials as they are deposited. It facilitates repair or alteration of existing components.

Sheet Lamination
This method prints 2D layers which are then joined, such as in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS).

Process TypeMaterialBonding MethodTechnologyApplication
Powder Bed Fusion (PBF)Metal powder, nylon, etc.Laser, electron beam, infrared radiationDMLS, SLS, SLM, EBMComplex components in small batches, medical implants, conformal cooling molds, etc.
Directed Energy Deposition (DED)Metal powder/filamentLaser, electron beamEBF, WLAM, WAAMLarge-scale printing, repair of large components
Binder Jetting (BJT)Metal powder/sandBinder + post-processing3DPLow-cost, large-size parts, architectural models, etc.
Sheet LaminationMetal foilUltrasonicUCLow-cost, lightweight components
Metal 3D Printing Types


SLM 3D Printing: A Proven Precision Manufacturing Technology

Selective laser melting (SLM) has established itself as a premier metal 3D printing process. It is a widely used metal 3D printing technology suitable for processing precision parts.

Aerospace, industrial applications and more leverage SLM for its design freedom and exacting manufacture of specialty components.

SLM excels at producing complex, close-tolerance products in high-performance alloys like those gaining popularity in devices. Its precision composition and structural control substantiate SLM as an indispensable solution for sophisticated consumer electronics supply chains.


Cost Reductions Enable Broader Metal 3D Printing Adoption

For additive manufacturing to serve mass production reliably, continuous cost optimization is critical. Promising developments include:


Falling Raw Material Prices

Metal powder prices, the primary input, are declining steadily. One major Chinese manufacturer, BLT, saw a 46% reduction from 2020-2022, from 1.445 million CNY/ton to 782,000 CNY/ton, improving business cases.


Lower Equipment Costs

Laser production is bringing down unit prices for 3D printer components. As full systems become more affordable, possible applications expand.


Improving Efficiency and Stability

Advancements like multi-laser configurations launched in 2023 boost production rates while ensuring consistency required for industrial scales. This addresses challenges of “lowering costs, improving quality, and increasing output volumes.”

As overall manufacturing expenses decrease, an increasing number of metal component designs become financially viable using 3D printing. Combined with enhanced productivity and reliability, ongoing cost reductions will stimulate broader evaluation and integration of the technology across high-precision industries like electronics.


Conclusion: Growth Potential for Titanium 3D Printing in Consumer Electronics


Market Expected to Expand

While additive manufacturing is establishing footholds, the technology has barely scratched the surface of its long-term potential in the electronics space.

According to Statista and Wohlers Reports, the global electronics market totaled $10.1 trillion in 2022. Yet the 3D printing subset amounted to just $2.127 billion—a mere 0.21% penetration.

As titanium components proliferate across device constructions and pioneers showcase additive techniques, the addressable market will expand.


Technology Advantages Align with Industry Needs

Electronics uniquely demands complex geometries and localized customizations that exemplify 3D printing’s strengths. Early validations by innovation leaders are inspiring followers to explore opportunities. Meanwhile, cost reductions and process enhancements continually strengthen justifications for integration.

The potential for 3D printing to enable new form factors and optimizations is immense. With continued maturation, uptake could scale rapidly as advantages become more compelling. The opportunity for future 3D printing deployment remains staggeringly under-tapped.


Unionfab: Expertise in Metal 3D Printing Technologies

Unionfab provides professional 3D printing services for electronics and other precision manufacturing industries. With extensive experience operating industrial-grade metal additive manufacturing equipment.

Capabilities for Small Electronics Production
Unionfab’s small-batch metal 3D printing services excel at producing low volumes of complex metal parts on demand.

Streamlined Workflow from Design to Completion
Unionfab handles files from all major 3D model systems and delivers finished, post-processed parts. We provide affordable, expedited metal additive services to help product development teams capitalize on the untapped potential of metal 3D printing.

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